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Map of layoffs for 1991
1991 layoffs by state
1991 layoffs over time, all states, logarithmic Y-axis
Q: Where is this data from?
A: This database has been built using publicly-available information that employers are required to file with certain states when they perform large layoffs.
Q: What is WARN?
A: A WARN (Worker Adjustment and Retraining Notification) notice is a notice required by the federal WARN Act in the United States, which mandates that employers with 100 or more employees provide at least 60 days advance written notice of a plant closing or mass layoff affecting 50 or more employees. \ The notice is intended to provide affected employees with sufficient time to prepare for the loss of their jobs and to seek alternative employment. This is also why some of the layoff dates in our tracker are in the future. For more details, see our in-depth guide to the WARN Act here.
Q: How does WARN work in different states?
A: Some states have their own "mini-WARN" laws that provide additional protections or cover smaller employers not covered by the federal law. For example, California has a state law known as the California WARN Act, which covers employers with 75 or more employees and provides some additional protections, such as requiring notice to be given to employees who are terminated as well as the state. In New York, the state's Mini-WARN Act requires employers with 50 or more employees to provide 90 days' notice of a plant closing or mass layoff. So, the specifics of the WARN notice requirements can vary from state to state, but the general principle is that it is meant to provide affected employees with advanced warning of potential job losses.
Q: Is this data exhaustive?
A: No. Because not all states have a WARN act which requires full disclosure, this does not capture all layoffs performed by these companies.
Q: How did you collect this data?
A: We get our WARN data from a combination of: requesting records from state government agencies directly, news sources, and double checking with various layoff trackers
Q: How do I report an error/double-check your work?
A: Every row in the table has a link on the rightmost cells that lets you inspect the original WARN notice document and report any data issues
Q: Where can I contact the owners or submit feature requests?
A: Please use this form if you have any questions, want to request data on a layoff, or have feature requests 🙂.
Q: How do you differ from other tech layoff trackers?
- We are tracking layoffs across all industries, not just tech.
- We are following individual WARN records from government entities, rather than crowdsourced data.
- Most of these records indicate exact offices and employee counts affected at each office, rather than just a single overall number for the entire company
- These records are often more exhaustive than the crowdsourced data. This means they reflect small layoffs, as well as layoffs from companies which may not be large enough to be announced in the press
- The timeline for filing these notices can vary -- they may be made available before or after a public announcement, so if you really want to stay on top of things, then you can follow both types of sources
Q: How can I access the underlying data?
Below is a partial sample of the WARN layoff listings data in 1991. For access to the complete data set, please click here
# Laid off
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Q: Why did you build this site?
A: Steven Zhang heard about the WARN Act from a friend, and decided to share some data analysis of the Jan 2023 Google layoffs on Linkedin. The post went viral with over 600,000 Linkedin views. The next weekend, he and Chris Talley decided to build this site to help people understand the broader layoff environment.
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